By Wilhelm H Westphal
This booklet is a translation of the sixth to eighth variation of the author's Kleines Lehrbuch der Physik. The circle of readers to which it hopes to allure and the author's goal in writing it were set out within the Preface to the 1st German variation, released in 1948. the current booklet continuously follows the foundations of the idea of amounts, the beginnings of which date again to James C. Maxwell. which means in all equations during this booklet the symbols constantly stand for actual amounts and never for the numerical values of amounts. in simple terms then are the equations gene rally legitimate and self sufficient of the alternative of devices utilized in their evaluate. The devices used are continually the "metric" devices that have been gaining floor more and more additionally within the English-speaking nations. A conversion desk for the various extra very important Anglo-American devices is given on web page XIV. i need to list my honest gratitude to Mr. Ewald Osers for his pains taking paintings in making this translation and to Mr. P. C. Banbury, Ph. D., of the dep. of Physics, college of analyzing, England, either for the recommendation he has given hirn all through and for devising the issues in particular for this version.
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Additional info for A Short Textbook of Physics: Not Involving the Use of Higher Mathematics
Any body, of whatever shape, 34. Couples and torques 40 has one definite axis through its center of gravity about which it has the smallest moment of inertia; perpendicular to it is one definite axis through its center of gravity about which the body has the greatest moment of inertia that it can have about any axis through its center of gravity. These two axes, together with the third axis through the center of gravity perpendicular to the first two, are known as principal axes of inertia and the moments of inertia the body has about them are its principal moments of inertia.
They can indeed by defined by the statement that Newton's first law, the theorem of inertia, applies only in 24 22. Inertialsystems. e. that a body undergoes acceleration only when a reciprocal force, acts upon it. In an accelerated system of reference the theorem of inertia does not apply since bodies on wh ich no forces are acting experience acceleration relative to such a system. Newton considered it appropriate to adopt a system of reference that was based on the sun and was free from rotation relative.
The customary units of the moment of inertia are 1 g cm 2 or 1 kg m 2 or 1 kgfm S2. 34. Couples and torques. In dealing with translation we always answered the question as to what caused acceleration by defining a force as its cause. Now that we are dealing with rotation the question arises as to what causes angular acceleration, i. e. changes of angular velocity with time. Obviously we are dealing with the effects offorces, but these are of a special kind. A single force can only cause a translational acceleration.