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By C.K. Morley

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RS-1; Rcas, Roseiflexus castenholzii; C396, Chloroflexus aurantiacus strain 396–1; CY400, Chloroflexus aurantiacus strain Y-400; CJ10, Chloroflexus aurantiacus strain J-10-fl; Cthe, Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum; Ctha, Chloroherpeton thalassium. Shading indicates % nt identity of sequences within bins from 50% (white) to 100% (black). related to that of the Japanese isolate J-10-fl. Blast analyses of these genomes and mat metagenomic sequences reveal the relative contributions the three Chloroflexus genomes make to the mat community (Fig.

2008). We developed an evolutionary simulation based on the Stable Ecotype Model (Ecotype 12 Fig. 5. Phylogenetic diversity of mat Synechococcus based on SSU-large subunit rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequences retrieved by PCR amplification. Putative ecotypes (PE) were demarcated by Ecotype Simulation analysis. A, Ac and Bc correspond to SSU rRNA sequence types. Highlighting indicates predominant association of different PE clades with temperature (blue to red indicates 60–68°C) and depth interval (solid for surface; stippled for subsurface) of collection site.

The next periodic selection will not affect such a variant, because it will have an alternative ecological niche. This kind of variant founds a new population that occupies this new niche and undergoes its own periodic selection events. The one-species population thus diverges into two-species populations. We may argue about when the distinction between populations is sufficient to claim they belong to distinct species (de Queiroz, 2005; Ward, 2006), but, in this model, they are ecologically distinct from the beginning.

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