By G. Everest, Thomas Ward

Contains updated fabric on fresh advancements and themes of vital curiosity, reminiscent of elliptic capabilities and the recent primality try Selects fabric from either the algebraic and analytic disciplines, offering numerous diverse proofs of a unmarried end result to demonstrate the differing viewpoints and provides sturdy perception

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**Additional info for An Introduction to Number Theory (Graduate Texts in Mathematics)**

**Example text**

Calculations tend to support this, and for n < 341 this does indeed successfully detect primality. 20. Testing the congruence 2n−1 ≡ 1 modulo n fails to detect the fact that n = 341 = 11 · 31 is composite. By Fermat’s Little Theorem, 210 ≡ 1 modulo 11 so 2340 ≡ 134 ≡ 1 modulo 11. Also 25 = 32 ≡ 1 modulo 31, so 2340 = (25 )68 ≡ 168 = 1 (mod 31). Thus 2340 − 1 is divisible by the coprime numbers 11 and 31, and hence by their product 341, so 2340 ≡ 1 modulo 341. 26): It gives the congruence ap−1 ≡ 1 (mod p) for any base a, not just a = 2.

27) Proof. The idea is to work your way up the chain of equations in the Euclidean Algorithm, always expressing the remainder in terms of the previous two remainders. Writing ∗ for an integer, we get gcd(a, b) = rn = rn−2 − rn−1 qn = rn−2 (1 + qn qn−1 ) − rn−3 qn = rn−3 · ∗ + rn−4 · ∗ .. = b · ∗ + r1 · ∗ = a · ∗ + b · ∗. 24. 21 we ﬁnd that 1 = 6−5 = 6 − (11 − 6) = 2 · 6 − 11 = 2(17 − 11) − 11 = 2 · 17 − 3 · 11. 25. Let n > 1 and a denote elements of Z. Then a and n are coprime if and only if there exists x with ax ≡ 1 (mod n).

11. *[Legendre] Show that every integer not of the form 4n (8k + 7) is a sum of three integer squares. 12. Suppose a prime p is a sum of four squares. Is it true that the representation is unique? What if p is a sum of three squares? 4 Siegel’s Theorem In this section, we show how a direct application of the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic in rings that are larger than the integers, for example the Gaussian integers Z[i], can yield all the integral solutions to certain cubic equations. In the ﬁrst example, we use the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic only in Z.