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This atlas attracts on a multidisciplinary method of offer a entire evaluation on endocrine problems of the top and neck, with specific emphasis at the position of imaging and image-guided tactics. the 1st part discusses the elemental features of the imaging tools and different concepts used for evaluate and analysis. the rest of the e-book makes a speciality of program of those tools in thyroid, parathyroid, and different endocrine issues of the top and neck. The assurance is broad ranging, encompassing Graves’ ailment, poisonous multinodular goiter, poisonous adenoma, thyroiditis, non-toxic goiter, benign nodules, and the several varieties of thyroid carcinoma, in addition to parathyroid adenoma, hyperplasia, and carcinoma and paragangliomas. Informative, top of the range pictures are supplied via overseas specialists in endocrine issues, together with endocrinologists, pathologists, radiologists, nuclear medication physicians, and surgeons, who additionally speak about pattern situations and supply syntheses of the appropriate medical literature.

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In this chapter, we detail the most salient cytohistological features of head and neck neuroendocrine lesions. Keywords Fine-needle aspiration • Cytology • Histology • Thyroid • Parathyroid • Paraganglioma M. Bongiovanni, MD (*) • A. 1 Graves’ Disease Graves’ disease is a thyroid autoimmune disease characterized by the presence in the plasma of anti- © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 L. Giovanella et al. 1007/978-3-319-22276-9_5 31 32 M. Bongiovanni and A. Nobile bodies directed against the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-r).

It is not clear if these forms arise “de novo” or if they originate from well-differentiated carcinomas, both theories being probably valid. Additional genetic and epigenetic alterations are required for the progression to less differentiated forms. Histologically, insular carcinomas are characterized by a solid, trabecular, or insular (hence the name) architecture. Essential to pose the correct diagnosis are the presence of necrosis and a high mitotic activity. Anaplastic carcinomas (Fig. 7 Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) arises from the parafollicular thyroid cell, the so-called C-cells, their main role being the production of calcitonin (CT).

Keywords Subacute thyroiditis • Autoimmune thyroiditis • Hashimoto’s disease • Inflammation • Thyroiditis • Thyroid P. Trimboli, MD Section of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Ospedale Israelitico, Rome, Italy Department of Nuclear Medicine, Thyroid and PET/CT Centre, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Via Ospedale 12, Bellinzona and Lugano CH-6500, Switzerland Prof. Dr. med. L. 1 Introduction Thyroiditis is an inflammation of the thyroid gland that has several etiologies and can be associated with normal, elevated, or depressed thyroid function, often with evolution from one condition to another.

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