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By Dan P. Manka

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M o d e r n flow-injection analysis w a s introduced in H u n g a r y during 1970 by N a g y et al. T h e i r initial p u r p o s e w a s to use s a m p l e injection into a carrier stream as a m e a n s to deliver r e p r o d u c i b l e s a m p l e v o l u m e s to an electrode following stirred m i x i n g in o r d e r to effect high analytical rates. T h e y found the analytical readout to be in the form of transient p e a k s with baseline resolution b e t w e e n s a m p l e s as illustrated in F i g .

On-stream titrators are commonly used for analysis of these higher concentra­ tions of acid or base but generally require somewhat higher levels of mainte­ nance. This is a consequence of the use of electrodes in titration combined with highly manipulative electromechanical components prone to wear and failure in continuous on-stream duty. Another alternative for measuring and maintaining acid or base at these levels is the in situ conductivity probe equipped with a large cell-constant to accommo­ date elevated concentrations of acid or base.

1 where K = [H + ] [ A - ] / [ H A ] (5) and brackets d e n o t e quantities in moles/liter. Since by definition pH = - l o g [H + ] and pK = - l o g K, (6) substitution and r e a r r a n g e m e n t of E q . (5) yields the relationship pH = pK + log [ A ~ ] / [ H A ] . (7) F r o m this e x p r e s s i o n , the extent of acid dissociation can be d e t e r m i n e d by c o m p a r i n g the characteristic constant pK for the acid u n d e r consideration with the p H of its solution. N o t e that the pK is equal to the p H at which the logarithm term in E q .

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