By Gordon McGranahan, Frank Murray
(Earthscan) Murdoch Univ., Australia. textual content studies contemporary advancements within the box and their relevance for public health and wellbeing in constructing international locations. offers reports from Asian, African, and Latin American international locations; and contrasts findings with these from Europe and North the United States. Softcover.
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Additional info for Air Pollution and Health in Rapidly Developing Countries
However, high levels of lead in fuels and increasing vehicle numbers are increasing exposure to lead in some countries. Other important sources of lead in air are the mining and processing of ores and other materials containing lead. Inhalation of lead is a significant source of lead in adults, but ingestion of lead in dust and products such as paint containing lead is a more important route of exposure in children. Arsenic and its compounds are widespread in the environment. They are released into air by industrial sources, including metal smelting and fuel combustion, by the use of some pesticides and, during volcanic eruptions, by wind-blown dusts.
The lack of information can be a significant challenge in many low income cities, however, and additional data collection and analysis are often needed to translate existing guidelines into effective air pollution management systems. When information is lacking decisions must nevertheless be made, and there are a number of relatively rapid techniques to help support local decisionmaking. Yasmin von Schirnding describes some of the most important techniques in Chapter 5. Rapid assessments may be needed to respond to a particular event (eg an air pollution episode or a community concern with regard to the pollution from a certain factory), or to help fill in the gaps in the existing information system.
It was with industrialization that local impacts of air pollution on human health and the environment began to be documented systematically. However, industrialization also fostered the idea that air pollution was a necessary product of economic development. Partly as a result, mounting evidence of serious air pollution problems did not initially provide the basis for decisive action. 1). A number of cities introduced smoke control ordinances around the turn of the 20th century, and by 1912, 23 of the largest 25 cities in the US had ordinances principally aimed at visible smoke from commercial establishments (Tarr, 1996).