Download Analyzing Animal Societies: Quantitative Methods for by Hal Whitehead PDF

By Hal Whitehead

While you are within the box of ethology or behavioral ecology, or the rest learning animal habit, this booklet grants every thing you want to learn about social analyses. Hal Whitehead lays out unique yet comprehensible guide on every little thing from info assortment to software program courses. i like it.

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Extra info for Analyzing Animal Societies: Quantitative Methods for Vertebrate Social Analysis

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9). Differentiation of roles. The differentiation of roles is one of the significant attributes of social evolution in insects (Michener 1969). , Stander 1992). 1). Integration of behavior. This is in some ways the obverse of the differentiation of roles and can be looked at using similar methods, although there are operational difficulties because lack of differentiation is often the null hypothesis, which cannot be proved. 2) can be used, however, to examine integration from a more positive perspective.

In the nonparametric bootstrap, we assume that the original data consist of n independent units—they must be independent. Having estimated the parameter(s) or statistic(s) using the data set, we construct bootstrap replicates sampling with replacement from the n independent units in the original data set. Thus, in a single bootstrap replicate, x1 might occur three times and x2 not at all. From each bootstrap replicate, we calculate parameter estimates, as with the original data. For any parameter, the distribution of its estimates among, say, 1,000 bootstrap replicates allows precision to be estimated.

An important example is a group-by-individual matrix. Rows represent groups and columns represent individuals, with “1” indicating that the individual was in the group and “0” that it was not in the group, or perhaps that it was not observed in the group. 2. 2 Example of Group-by-Individual Matrix Individual Group JOE SAL FRED BOB SUE a b c d e f g h 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 Each entry indicates whether an individual was present (1) or absent (0) in a particular observed group.

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