Download Anatomia funzionale del sistema nervoso dell'uomo by John Nolte PDF

By John Nolte

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The emission rate increases further when the temperature of the boiler is increased in order to again increase generation as the wind energy loses strength. More coal must be fed into the boiler to raise the temperature to the design threshold at which it operated before being cut back. In addition, after the boiler is brought back to the desired temperature, the emissions scrubber equipment must be recalibrated and adjusted to achieve optimal control. The five examples of SO2 and NOX impacts from wind events show how emissions rates are impacted by coal plant cycling.

Since the wind blows at night when gas generation is relatively low as a percent of total generation, coal plants are cycled, producing more SO2, NOX, and CO2 than would have been the case had those coal plants not been cycled. © 2011 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 43 Impacts of Intermittent Generation ERCOT publishes wind, coal, nuclear, natural gas, and hydroelectric generation data on a 15-minute basis. In addition, hourly generation and emissions data are available through the CEMS system. Both the ERCOT 15-minute data and the CEMS 60-minute data were utilized to determine the emission implications of cycling units due to wind generation.

The solid line indicates the portion of total load that can be met with 1,100 MW of current wind capacity if used at 100% capacity. m. , coal generation comprises 49% (summer) to 60% (winter) of the generation mix. Accordingly, coal facilities are less likely to be cycled to compensate for wind generation because gas-fired generation (from ­combined-cycle and combustion turbines) is sufficient to absorb the variability of wind generation. During periods of high load, it is also somewhat easier for PSCO to sell excess power to neighboring utilities to help meet their peak requirements.

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