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By G.F. Hewitt

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Simple Momentum and Energy Balances 47 In deriving a suitable value for the void fraction, the most straightforward approach is to assume that the flow is homogeneous (Isbin et al, 1957; Massena, 1960), and the void fraction, in this case, is given simply by xvG/vH. Also, for homogeneous flow, vH = vM = vKE, and the critical mass velocity is determined simply by substitution into eqn. 68). The homogeneous equilibrium model is found to considerably underpredict the critical mass flow, particularly at low qualities.

Actual measurements of void fractions near expansions are given by Richardson (1958) (horizontal flow) and Petrick and Swanson (1959) (vertical flow) and show that a considerable change in void fraction occurs in the vicinity of the expansion, though the original value may be recovered further downstream. Lottes (1961) shows that the Romie method [eqn. 37)] gave values of pressure recovery in excess of those measured by Richardson (1958), though there were indications that the model worked better in calculation of high pressure circulation data.

Rearrangement of eqn. 62) • = It is readily shown that this equation for α is consistent with a slip ratio K=uG/uL V V a \ J ( G I L ) — result also obtained by Fauske (1963) for critical two-phase flow in a pipe. 63) Simple Momentum and Energy Balances 43 where pG and pL are the pressure drops for the gas and liquid phases flowing alone. 63) was derived by Murdock (1962) and was used by him as a basis for analysis of data for steam-water and gas-liquid flows through orifices. The best fit of the data was obtained by modifying eqn.

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