By Julia Davydova
This is an cutting edge examine of edition between linguistic goods in what has been typically defined as current ideal contexts. The research bargains analyses of latest facts units taken from an apparently assorted set of non-native Englishes. whereas comprising conventional second-language types corresponding to Indian English, Singapore English, East African English within the research of the current excellent, the learn extends its scope to hide learner different types of English spoken in Russia and Germany.
The writer takes her reader on an awesome variationist trip world wide, revealing bankruptcy after bankruptcy the commonalities and alterations within the styles of use of the English current excellent and, eventually, constructing a entire point of view making an allowance for powerful generalisations throughout a number of facts sets.
Moreover, empirical information serves as a baseline for taking a stand on a few at present debated concerns in variationist sociolinguistics, learn on moment language acquisition in addition to study on linguistic complexity. hence working at the interface of varied linguistic paradigms, the e-book addresses an enormous viewers together with scholars of linguistics and researchers with a number of fields of specialization.
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Extra resources for The Present Perfect in Non-Native Englishes: A Corpus-Based Study of Variation
Despite this heterogeneity, three principal groups of speakers of English speakers have been distinguished (cf. Quirk et al. 1985; Kachru 1985, 1986; Crystal 2004): those who speak English as a native language and thus belong to countries of the inner circle; those who speak English as a second language and hence inhabit countries of the outer circle, in which English enjoys the status of an official or co-official language; and, finally, those who use English mainly as a foreign language and belong to the countries of the expanding circle, where English is not recognised on the official level and is mainly used as a means of communication with foreigners.
These schools generally have a highly qualified teaching staff, very good libraries and several recreational facilities where children can learn while playing. It is obligatory to use English all the time in these schools. On the other hand, English is hardly used outside the classroom in government schools and the teaching generally focuses on discreet grammatical issues. The ordinary government schools generally cater to children from poor socio-economic backgrounds. There are minimal opportunities to use English, the libraries are not well-stocked and recreational facilities available are very limited.
In addition, results of the survey on language use in Himachal Pradesh reported by Mishra and Raj (1980) reveal that more than 40% of the listeners report listening to news and programmes in Hindi, about 15% to 19% in dialects 32 2. Non-native varieties ofEnglish and only 13% in English (cf. Mishra and Raj 1980, cited in Bhatnagar 1988). A similar idea is expressed in Schneider (2007), who points out that "the majority of realities and lives of people on the subcontinent are untouched by the presence of English" (Schneider 2007: 161).